Digital Film Tools DFT 1.2.1 (x64)
boris fx is a leading developer and manufacturer of motion graphics software. boris fx has been providing creative professionals with the industry’s most innovative, professional-grade software solutions since 1988. the company’s products include the mocha 3d and mocha 2d animation, mocha compositor, mocha 3d toon, mocha character tools, mocha filmora, mocha paint, mocha audio, mocha blueprint, mocha motion, mocha liquid, mocha layout, mocha interaction, mocha retime, mocha retime plus, mocha share, and mocha track products. for more information about boris fx, visit www.borisfx.com.
during the last few years, bifeo3-based multiferroics have been investigated intensively with a variety of techniques, including tem, x-ray diffraction, peem, pfm, and nv magnetometry. from tem investigations, bifeo3 multiferroics are found to be composed of multiple nanosized ferroelectric domains that exhibit an antiferromagnetic arrangement. local ferroelectric domains are composed of alternating nanosized ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic domains, which are separated by antiparallel switching domain walls [ 147 ]. while tem has demonstrated the nanoscale details of the magnetic domain structure, it is limited to a single thin film sample. therefore, recent progress in peem is to use the dual and complementary capability of imaging the electric and magnetic domains at the nanoscale. with a method of scanning probe electric microscopy, the distribution of electric and magnetic domains can be mapped in a single sample. the nanoscale electric field distribution can be mapped in the electric domain and the nanoscale magnetic field distribution can be mapped in the magnetic domain, providing the distribution of both magnetic and electric domains simultaneously. as shown in figure 5, the local electric field distribution can be imaged at the nanoscale scale in an electric domain region or magnetic domain region of bifeo3 by using peem [ 148 ].
in bulk materials, the ferroelectric nature of bifeo3 has been demonstrated for more than twenty years, as in its rhombohedral phase, the ferroelectric polarization is along the c axis of the perovskite structure [ 74, 75 ]. in addition, the in-plane polar vector of the ferroelectric ordering is always perpendicular to the b axis of the pbnm structure [ 76 ]. by using the ferroelectric nanodomains as a mask, a single epitaxial growth was performed on the (001) surface of a pbnm-type substrate [ 77 ]. the surface of the film was reconstructed and the ferroelectric domains are isolated by the substrate and growth conditions. owing to this, the ferroelectric domains are not connected. they were identified by their piezoresponse contrast using piezoresponse force microscopy and scanning electro-leit microscopy. figure 4 (a) shows the ferroelectric domains of the thin film (yellow) and the substrate (blue). the piezoresponse contrast in the middle part of the domains is zero, which means that the electrical polarization is zero (pz =0), owing to the inversion symmetry of the structure. pfm and scanning electro-leit microscopy images in different directions confirm the inversion symmetry and the zero piezoresponse contrast. as the ferroelectric polarization is always normal to the surface of the film, the surface charge density is 0.5 c m−2, while the polarization is +1.9c m−2. there is a coercive field of about 1.5 kv cm−1 for the ferroelectric domains. the remnant ferroelectric polarization is +0.7 c m−2. using xmcd-peem, the authors showed that the ferroelectric switching of the bifeo3 induces a polarization switching of the cofe thin film (magnetization of the ferromagnet is always reversed by 90) ( figure 4 (b) and (c)).