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a new method named as laser-induced focused ion beam (lib-fib) was demonstrated to achieve ultra-precise etching of transparent materials. the technique uses a femtosecond laser beam to generate plasma in the transparent substrate, which is then transported by a focused-ion beam (fib). in this way, ultra-precise etching of transparent materials can be achieved with a high resolution of a few m.

recently, the integration of the lipaa technique with microfluidics has been an important focus of research. it allows not only to engineer the microfluidic channels for different purposes, such as microreactors, microchambers, and microvalves, but also to link these microchannels to a functional microfluidic system, such as a microcapillary array, micro- or nanochannel-based microfluidic system, and micropumps, through a simple procedure of laser patterning 26, 47 .

the realization of functional microfluidic systems with laser micromachining technique has aroused much interest in biological and medical sciences. the traditional microfluidic technology is composed of silicon-based materials, which are relatively expensive, hard, and brittle. however, laser micromachining process can enable the fabrication of complex structures on transparent substrates, such as glass, fused silica, and polymers. microfluidic systems have been developed based on soft materials 26, 36, 118, 130, 131, 141, 142 . microfluidics made of polydimethylsiloxane (pdms) is a well-known method because of its ease of fabrication and low-cost. however, the use of pdms has its own shortcomings, such as the poor optical transparency and the high surface tension. moreover, pdms is a non-condensable liquid, so that it cannot be used for handling of sensitive fluids, such as dna and protein solutions. another drawback of pdms is that the tensile strength is not high, thus it is difficult to use when a large amount of sample is required. so far, microfluidics based on poly(ethylene glycol) (peg) and poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (phema) are developed 35, 36, 118, 130, 141, 142 . however, the optical transparency of the materials used in microfluidic systems is still limited because they are opaque. recently, the laser micromachining technique has been combined with pdms microfluidics to fabricate microfluidic systems that can be used in biological and medical applications 13, 27, 28, 41, 142 . at present, pdms microfluidics is still the most popular microfluidics technology, and there are many ways to enhance the applications of pdms microfluidics, such as the integration of microelectromechanical systems (mems) in microfluidic devices 26, 142 . recently, the integration of si3n4 and pdms has been proposed to fabricate microfluidic systems with higher strength and better transmittance 39 .

in this method, the laser absorber is deposited onto the surface of the substrate using a mask. the mask is designed to allow the laser beam to penetrate through the material and be absorbed by the absorber layer. the laser energy is absorbed by the absorber layer, and it is then converted into thermal energy and causes a rapid increase in temperature. the absorber layer is then removed by chemical etching solution, which is the same etching solution used to etch the substrate. the laser absorber layer is etched at the same time due to the recoil effect of the evaporated materials. since the laser fluence is more than the threshold, the etching is uniform and isotropic. the laser absorber layer can be replaced by a variety of material layer. the performance of the etching material is critical to achieve the high quality of the fabricated structure. many materials have been used for laser absorber layer, including silicon, copper, aluminum, and gold. the laser absorber layer is usually deposited by spin-coating, sputtering, and laser cladding. the laser absorber layer can be applied to various substrates. this method is mainly used for fabricating microstructures with a thickness of less than 1μm. the thickness of the laser absorber layer can be less than 5μm to achieve the large etching rate. however, this process is more suitable for thin-film materials. it is difficult to etch bulk substrate with a large thickness. the etched surface quality is also a critical factor in this method. a novel technique named as laser-induced photo-thermo-chemical (ptac) etching was demonstrated to combine the advantages of libde 156 and life 161 to achieve simultaneous material removal and surface modification of transparent materials 162 . the technique has a high aspect ratio of up to 100 and a high resolution of up to 150nm. an efficient way to fabricate a high-resolution structure is to use polydimethylsiloxane (pdms) patterned as a soft mask 163, 164 . the technique is illustrated in fig. 3. it is shown that the combination of the ptac process with a pdms mask can achieve etching of ito films and the cleaning of the etched residues as well as the creation of deep holes by a single step 162 . it is also shown that the ptac technique can be used to fabricate a nanoscale periodic pattern with a high resolution of 70nm 162 . 5ec8ef588b